Effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin(*).


First published in Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism on 2011 Oct.
Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011 Oct;13(10):939-46. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01458.x.

Authors: Graefe-Mody U, Friedrich C, Port A, Ring A, Retlich S, Heise T, Halabi A, Woerle HJ



This study assessed the influence of various degrees of renal impairment on the exposure of linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor with a primarily non-renal route of excretion, in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).


Linagliptin pharmacokinetics was studied under single-dose and steady-state conditions in subjects with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment (with and without T2DM) and end-stage renal disease and compared with the pharmacokinetics in subjects with normal renal function (with and without T2DM).


Renal excretion of unchanged linagliptin was <7% in all groups. Under single-dose conditions, the degree of renal impairment did not affect mean plasma linagliptin concentration-time profiles. These showed a similar decline and almost identical plasma concentrations 24 h postdosing in subjects with mild, moderate or severe renal impairment and in subjects with T2DM with and without renal impairment. Although there was a tendency towards slightly higher (20-60%) exposure in renally impaired subjects (with and without T2DM) compared with subjects with normal renal function, the steady-state AUC and C(max) values showed a large overlap and were not affected by the degree of renal impairment. The accumulation half-life of linagliptin ranged from 14-15 h in subjects with normal renal function to 18 h in severe renal impairment. Only a weak correlation (r(2) = 0.18) was seen between creatinine clearance and steady-state exposure.


Renal impairment has only a minor effect on linagliptin pharmacokinetics. Consequently, there will be no need for adjusting the linagliptin dose in renally impaired patients with T2DM.

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