CRS has a broad range of expertise regarding infusion and injection studies utilizing computer-controlled bolus injections, continuous injections, and infusion procedures, which were implemented as standard routines. Our extensive pharmaceutical and clinical experience cover on-site preparation and application of drugs for infusion or injection, closely monitoring of the voluntary subjects, and thoroughly documentation of drug effects and injection-site reactions
Various drugs are delivered to patients via injection routes. And – during recent years – the ever-growing number of biologics has rapidly increased the number of clinical trials with injectable drugs.
While – on the one side – the intravenous way of delivery provides immediate bioavailability of the drug and often creates a rapid effect within seconds or minutes, the subcutaneous route – on the other side – is preferred for longer lasting pharmacokinetic effects.
Intravenous (i.v.) injections provide an alternative to the oral route for drugs that otherwise might be degraded or not be absorbed by the GI tract. Furthermore, i.v. injections are ideal for patients with GI dysfunction or patients who are not able to swallow tablets.
The advantages of an i.v. drug injection are the immediate bioavailability of the drug and often the rapid response of the patient and also the easily controlled dosage of the drug. In addition, direct administration of a drug into a vein guarantees 100 percent bioavailability.
The subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is one of the most versatile routes of drug administration in that it can be used for both short term and very long term therapies.
Absorption of drugs from the subcutaneous tissue is influenced by the same factors that determine the rate of absorption from intramuscular sites; however, the vascularity in the subcutaneous tissue is less than that of muscle tissue, and therefore absorption after s.c. injection may be slower than after intramuscular administration.
Intracutaneous (i.c.) or intradermal injections are delivered into the dermis, which is the skin layer underneath the epidermis. The dermis can be found on most areas of the human body and is only a few millimeter thick. The dermis cannot only be used for drug administration but also for allergy/tuberculosis tests.
The advantages of an i.c. injection are that drug delivery is fast and the injection site reaction is clearly visible. However, the i.c. injection is a difficult technique and requires a lot of experience, which can be offered by CRS.
The Drugs which are suitable for an intramuscular (i.m.) injection are, e.g., vaccines, hormones, or antibiotics. The advantages of an i.m. injection are that large drug volume can be applied and the steady release of the drug over a certain course of time.